Models of Continuing Professional Development: a framework for analysis

Aileen Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The area of teachers’ CPD is of growing interest internationally. However, while an increasing range of literature focuses on particular aspects of CPD, there is a paucity of literature addressing the spectrum of CPD models in a comparative manner (Hoban, 2002). This paper therefore considers a wide range of international literature, together with some specific examples from the Scottish context, in proposing a framework built around key characteristics of individual models of CPD. The framework identifies nine key models, which are then classified in relation to their capacity for supporting professional autonomy and transformative practice.

The paper considers the circumstances in which each of the nine models of CPD might be adopted, and explores the form(s) of knowledge that can be developed through any particular model. It also examines the power relationships inherent in the individual models and explores the extent to which CPD is perceived and promoted either as an individual endeavour related to accountability, or as a collaborative endeavour which supports transformative practice.

Finally, it is argued that there is a need for greater interrogation of both the purpose and the potential outcomes of CPD structures – the framework outlined in this paper is offered as one way of supporting such analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-250
JournalJournal of In-Service Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2005


Dive into the research topics of 'Models of Continuing Professional Development: a framework for analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this