Morphology of ice wear from rubber–ice friction tests and its dependence on temperature and sliding velocity

D. D. Higgins, Brett A. Marmo, C. E. Jeffree, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane Blackford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Friction processes for ice on carbon-black filled styrene butadiene rubber have been investigated by observing wear and debris morphology on wear surfaces using low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) and correlating the features with sliding velocity and temperature. Friction experiments were carried out over a velocity range of 0.003 m s−1 to 2.6 m s−1 and a temperature range of −33 °C to −0.5 °C and the results used to form a friction map. Observation of worn surfaces at high velocity showed melt films that result from frictional heating. At low velocities and low temperatures morphologies indicative of much drier contact were seen. At higher temperatures and low velocity there is evidence of liquid films that we propose arise from the salt content of the ice. High friction (μ ∼ 1) at low velocity and at temperatures around −25 °C was caused by the internal friction associated with the rubber glass transition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634-644
Number of pages11
JournalWear
Volume265
Issue number5-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008

Keywords

  • Ice
  • Rubber
  • Low temperature scanning electron microscopy
  • Friction mechanism

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