The majority of proteins contain intrinsic fluorophores as natural sensors of molecular structures, dynamics, and interactions. The intrinsic protein fluorescence signal allows for the label-free and, hence, undisturbed and rapid study of protein-ligand interactions. Ultraviolet-based drug screening is hampered by the background, photobleaching, light scattering, inner filter effects, and interfering assay compounds. Such problems can be overcome by means of molecular three-photon excitation (3PE) with infrared femtosecond light pulses since longer excitation wavelengths result in less Raleigh scattering, and the subfemtoliter (confocal-like) 3PE volume minimizes out-of-focus photobleaching, background generation, and inner filter effects. We demonstrate the general feasibility of 3PE for protein spectroscopy and illustrate the technique's excellent potential for high-throughput screening. By using the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of a protein-substrate, we were able to discriminate between ligands of different affinities in binding assays.