Multi-State Memristors and Their Applications: An Overview

Chaohan Wang, Zhaoguang Si, Xiongfei Jiang, Adil Malik, Yihan Pan, Spyros Stathopoulos, Alex Serb, Shiwei Wang, Themis Prodromakis, Christos Papavassiliou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Memristors show great potential for being integrated into CMOS technology and provide new approaches for designing computing-in-memory (CIM) systems, brain-inspired applications, trimming circuits and other topologies for the beyond-CMOS era. A crucial characteristic of the memristor is multi-state 1 switching. Memristors are capable of representing information in an ultra-compact fashion, by storing multiple bits per device. However, certain challenges remain in multi-state memristive circuits and systems design such as device stability and peripheral circuit complexity. In this paper, we review the state of the art of multi-state memristor technologies and their associated CMOS/Memristor circuit design, and discuss the challenges regarding device imperfection factors, modelling, peripheral circuit design and layout. We present measurement results of our in-house fabricated multi-state memristor as an example to further illustrate the feasibility of applying multi-state memristors in CMOS design, and demonstrate their related future applications such as multi-state memristive memories in machine learning, memristive neuromorphic applications, trimming and tuning circuits, etc. In the end, we summarize past and present efforts done in this field and envisage the direction of multi-state memristor related research.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems
Early online date17 Nov 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Nov 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • AI hardware
  • Circuits and systems
  • Memristor
  • Memristors
  • Neurons
  • RRAM
  • Random access memory
  • Switches
  • Switching circuits
  • Titanium dioxide
  • memristive circuits and systems
  • multi-bit RRAM
  • multi-state memristors


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