Mus musculus x Mus caroli hybrids: mouse mules

J D West, W I Frels, V M Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Analysis of six enzymes using starch gel electrophoresis indicates that autosomal and X-linked genes of both parental species are expressed normally in M. musculus X M. caroli hybrids. There is no evidence for allelic repression for the four autosomally inherited enzymes. Banding patterns for G6PD and PGK-1 indicate that X-chromosome inactivation occurs and that the maternally derived M. musculus X-chromosome is preferentially expressed in the yolk sac. Despite normal genetic expression none of the four adult female hybrids was fertile and the male hybrids tended to be retarded during fetal development. The routine production of fetal M. musculus X M. caroli hybrids, heterozygous for three X-linked genes coding for G6PD, PGK-1, and HPRT, should provide an excellent system for the analysis of X-chromosome expression and an alternative to the mule for studies of hybrid reproduction and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-6
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Heredity
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 1978


  • Animals
  • Enzyme Repression
  • Enzymes
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Genes
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Hybridization, Genetic
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Pigmentation
  • Sex Ratio
  • X Chromosome


Dive into the research topics of 'Mus musculus x Mus caroli hybrids: mouse mules'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this