Mutations in CDC45, Encoding an Essential Component of the Pre-initiation Complex, Cause Meier-Gorlin Syndrome and Craniosynostosis

WGS500 Consortium, Aimee L Fenwick, Maciej Kliszczak, Fay Cooper, Jennie Murray, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Stephen R F Twigg, Anne Goriely, Simon J McGowan, Kerry A Miller, Indira B Taylor, Clare Logan, Sevcan Bozdogan, Sumita Danda, Joanne Dixon, Solaf M Elsayed, Ezzat Elsobky, Alice Gardham, Mariette J V Hoffer, Marije KoopmansDonna M McDonald-McGinn, Gijs W E Santen, Ravi Savarirayan, Deepthi de Silva, Olivier Vanakker, Steven A Wall, Louise C Wilson, Ozge Ozalp Yuregir, Elaine H Zackai, Chris P Ponting, Andrew P Jackson, Andrew O M Wilkie, Wojciech Niedzwiedz, Louise S Bicknell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

DNA replication precisely duplicates the genome to ensure stable inheritance of genetic information. Impaired licensing of origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle has been implicated in Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), a disorder defined by the triad of short stature, microtia, and a/hypoplastic patellae. Biallelic partial loss-of-function mutations in multiple components of the pre-replication complex (preRC; ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, or CDC6) as well as de novo stabilizing mutations in the licensing inhibitor, GMNN, cause MGS. Here we report the identification of mutations in CDC45 in 15 affected individuals from 12 families with MGS and/or craniosynostosis. CDC45 encodes a component of both the pre-initiation (preIC) and CMG helicase complexes, required for initiation of DNA replication origin firing and ongoing DNA synthesis during S-phase itself, respectively, and hence is functionally distinct from previously identified MGS-associated genes. The phenotypes of affected individuals range from syndromic coronal craniosynostosis to severe growth restriction, fulfilling diagnostic criteria for Meier-Gorlin syndrome. All mutations identified were biallelic and included synonymous mutations altering splicing of physiological CDC45 transcripts, as well as amino acid substitutions expected to result in partial loss of function. Functionally, mutations reduce levels of full-length transcripts and protein in subject cells, consistent with partial loss of CDC45 function and a predicted limited rate of DNA replication and cell proliferation. Our findings therefore implicate the preIC as an additional protein complex involved in the etiology of MGS and connect the core cellular machinery of genome replication with growth, chondrogenesis, and cranial suture homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-38
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Issue number1
Early online date30 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2016


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