In culture isolated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (more precisely termed skeletal stem cells, SSCs) spontaneously differentiate into fibroblasts, preventing the growth of large numbers of multipotent SSCs for use in regenerative medicine. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expansion of SSCs, while maintaining multipotency and preventing fibroblastic differentiation are poorly understood. Major hurdles to understanding how the maintenance of SSCs is regulated are (a) SSCs isolated from bone marrow are heterogeneous populations with different proliferative characteristics and (b) a lack of tools to investigate SSC number expansion and multipotency. Here, a nanotopographical surface is used as a tool that permits SSC proliferation while maintaining multipotency. It is demonstrated that retention of SSC phenotype in culture requires adjustments to the cell cycle that are linked to changes in the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases. This demonstrates that biomaterials can offer cross-SSC culture tools and that the biological processes that determine whether SSCs retain multipotency or differentiate into fibroblasts are subtle, in terms of biochemical control, but are profound in terms of determining cell fate.
|Number of pages||11|
|Early online date||24 Nov 2016|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2017|
- cell cycle
- mesenchymal stem cells
- skeletal stem cells