Abstract / Description of output

Neurogranin (Ng), a post-synaptic protein involved in memory formation, has been investigated as a biomarker in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing. CSF Ng levels are elevated in AD relative to healthy controls and correlate with cognition; however, few studies have focused on Ng abundance in the brain. Synapse loss in the brain correlates closely with cognitive decline in AD making synaptic biomarkers potentially important for tracking disease progression, but the links between synaptic protein changes in CSF and brain remain incompletely understood. In the current study, Ng abundance was examined in post-mortem human brain tissue across AD, healthy ageing (HA), and mid-life (ML) cohorts. Ng levels were quantified in three brain regions associated with cognitive change found during ageing and neurodegenerative diseases, namely the middle temporal gyrus, primary visual cortex and the posterior hippocampus using immunohistochemistry. To support immunohistochemical analysis, total homogenate and biochemically enriched synaptic fractions from available temporal gyrus tissues were examined by immunoblot. Finally, we examined whether Ng is associated with lifetime cognitive ageing. Ng levels were significantly reduced in AD relative to HA and ML cases across all regions. Additionally Ng was significantly reduced in HA in comparison to ML in the primary visual cortex. Immunoblotting confirms reduced Ng levels in AD cases supporting immunohistochemical results. Interestingly, there was also a significant reduction of synapse-associated Ng in our group who had lifetime cognitive decline in comparison to the group with lifetime cognitive resilience indicating loss of neurogranin in remaining synapses during ageing is associated with cognitive decline. Our findings indicate that increases in CSF Ng reflect loss of brain neurogranin and support the use of CSF Ng as a biomarker of AD and potentially of cognitive decline in healthy ageing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105991
Number of pages9
JournalNeurobiology of disease
Early online date6 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Ageing
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Biomarker
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Neurogranin
  • Post-synaptic


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