Non-coding RNAs are increasingly recognized not only as regulators of various biological functions but also as targets for a new generation of RNA therapeutics and biomarkers. We hereby review recent insights relating to non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (e.g. miR-126, miR-146a), long non-coding RNAs (e.g. MIR503HG, GATA6-AS, SMILR) and circular RNAs (e.g. cZNF292) and their role in vascular diseases. This includes identification and therapeutic use of hypoxia-regulated non-coding RNAs and endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate intrinsic smooth muscle cell signalling, age-related non-coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biology and metabolic control. Finally, we discuss non-coding RNA species with biomarker potential.