Notes on Antmicrobial Resistance

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing threat to modern medical and veterinary healthcare. It is a one-health challenge, as humans and animals share related bacteria, AMR genes and antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) should therefore be a shared endeavour – we must all act to preserve the efficacy of these drugs for the future.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) Antimicrobial Advice Ad Hoc Expert Group (AMEG) has recently categorized antibiotics based on the need for their use in veterinary medicine alongside the potential consequences to public health from increased AMR. The antibiotics have been categorized as: A – Avoid; B – Restrict; C – Caution; and D – Prudence.

This categorization will help practical AMS in veterinary healthcare. The AMEG categorization does not replace treatment guidelines, which take into account licensed indications, dose and frequency, constraints on use in some species, the most likely bacterial isolates in the infection, the likelihood of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity tests, and national prescribing policies. Nevertheless, the AMEG categorization will help veterinarians select the most appropriate treatment for their patient. In particular, it encourages de-escalation of treatment to the lowest category appropriate for the infection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39
Number of pages1
JournalBSAVA Companion
VolumeApril 2021
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021


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