Purpose: Peroxisomes perform complex metabolic and catabolic functions essential for normal growth and development. Mutations in 14 genes cause a spectrum of peroxisomal disease in humans. Most recently, PEX11B was associated with an atypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) in a single individual. In this study, we identify further PEX11B cases and delineate associated phenotypes.
Methods: Probands from three families underwent next generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnosis of a multisystem developmental disorder. Autozygosity mapping was conducted in one affected sibling pair. ExomeDepth was used to identify copy number variants from NGS data and confirmed by dosage analysis. Biochemical profiling was used to investigate the metabolic signature of the condition.
Results: All patients presented with bilateral cataract at birth but the systemic phenotype was variable, including short stature, skeletal abnormalities, and dysmorphism-features not described in the original case. Next generation sequencing identified biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PEX11B as the underlying cause of disease in each case (PEX11B c.235C>T p.(Arg79Ter) homozygous; PEX11B c.136C>T p.(Arg46Ter) homozygous; PEX11B c.595C>T p.(Arg199Ter) heterozygous, PEX11B ex1-3 del heterozygous). Biochemical studies identified very low plasmalogens in one patient, whilst a mildly deranged very long chain fatty acid profile was found in another.
Conclusions: Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of the condition and underscore congenital cataract as the consistent primary presenting feature. We also find that biochemical measurements of peroxisome function may be disturbed in some cases. Furthermore, diagnosis by NGS is proficient and may circumvent the requirement for an invasive skin biopsy for disease identification from fibroblast cells.