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The endometrium has a remarkable capacity for efficient repair; however, factors involved remain undefined. Premenstrual progesterone withdrawal leads to increased prostaglandin (PG) production and local hypoxia. Here we determined human endometrial expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the roles of PGE(2) and hypoxia in its regulation. Endometrial biopsy specimens (n = 51) were collected. Endometrial cells and explants were exposed to 100 nmol/L of PGE(2) or 0.5% O(2). The endometrial IL-8 concentration peaked during menstruation (P < 0.001) and had a significant proangiogenic effect. IL-8 was increased by PGE(2) and hypoxia in secretory but not proliferative explants, which suggests that exposure to progesterone is essential. In vitro progesterone withdrawal induced significant IL-8 up-regulation in proliferative explants primed with progestins, but only in the presence of hypoxia. Epithelial cells treated simultaneously with PGE(2) and hypoxia demonstrated synergistic increases in IL-8. Inhibition of HIF-1 by short hairpin RNA abolished hypoxic IL-8 induction, and inhibition of NF-κB by an adenoviral dominant negative inhibitor decreased PGE(2)-induced IL-8 expression (P > 0.05). Increased menstrual IL-8 is consistent with a role in repair. Progesterone withdrawal, hypoxia, and PGE(2) regulate endometrial IL-8 by acting via HIF-1 and NF-κB. Hence, progesterone withdrawal may activate two distinct pathways to initiate endometrial repair.
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- 1 Finished
1/06/07 → 30/07/11