Splicing factors of the SR protein family share a modular structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal RS domain rich in arginine and serine residues. The RS domain, which is extensively phosphorylated, promotes protein-protein interactions and directs subcellular localization and-in certain situations-nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of individual SR proteins. We analyzed mutant versions of human SF2/ASF in which the natural RS repeats were replaced by RD or RE repeats and compared the splicing and subcellular localization properties of these proteins to those of SF2/ASF lacking the entire RS domain or possessing a minimal RS domain consisting of 10 consecutive RS dipeptides (RS10). In vitro splicing of a pre-mRNA that requires an RS domain could take place when the mutant RD, RE, or RS10 domain replaced the natural domain. The RS10 version of SF2/ASF shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in the same manner as the wild-type protein, suggesting that a tract of consecutive RS dipeptides, in conjunction with the RRMs of SF2/ASF, is necessary and sufficient to direct nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. However, the SR protein SC35 has two long stretches of RS repeats, yet it is not a shuttling protein. We demonstrate the presence of a dominant nuclear retention signal in the RS domain of SC35.