Nuclear export of ribosomes requires a subset of nucleoporins and the Ran system, but specific transport factors have not been identified. Using a large subunit reporter (Rp125p-eGFP), we have isolated several temperature-sensitive ribosomal export (rix) mutants. One of these corresponds to the ribosomal protein Rpl10p, which interacts directly with Nmd3p, a conserved and essential protein associated with 60S subunits, We find that thermosensitive nmd3 mutants are impaired ill large subunit export. Strikingly, Nmd3p shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported by the nuclear export receptor Xpo1p. Moreover, we show that export of 60S subunits is Xpo1p dependent. We conclude that nuclear export of 60S subunits requires the nuclear export sequence-containing nonribosomal protein Nmd3p, which directly binds to the large subunit protein Rpl10p.