O&M models for ocean energy converters: Calibrating through real sea data

Tianna Bloise Thomaz, David Crooks, Encarni Medina-Lopez, Leonore Van Velzen, Henry Jeffrey, Joseba Lopez Mendia, Raul Rodriguez Arias, Pablo Ruiz Minguela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Of the cost centres that combine to result in Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE), O&M costs play a significant part. Several developers have calculated component costs, demonstrating how they can become commercially competitive with other forms of renewable energy. However, there are uncertainties relating to the O&M figures that can only be reduced through lessons learned at sea. This work presents an O&M model calibrated with data from real sea experience of a wave energy device deployed at the Biscay Marine energy Platform (BiMEP): the OPERA O&M Model. Two additional case studies, utilising two other O&M calculation methodologies, are presented for comparison with the OPERA O&M Model. The second case study assumes the inexistence of an O&M model, utilising a Simplified Approach. The third case study applies DTOcean's (a design tool for ocean energy arrays) O&M module. The results illustrate the potential advantages of utilising real sea data for the calibration and development of an O&M model. The Simplified Approach was observed to overestimate LCOE when compared to the OPERA O&M Model. This work also shows that O&M models can be used for the definition of optimal maintenance plans to assist with OPEX reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2475
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jun 2019


  • Array modelling tool
  • Economic model
  • O&M model
  • Ocean energy
  • Operating data
  • Real sea experience

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