Occlusion of the Internal Jugular Vein in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Causes and Diagnosis

Dana M Hartl, Mark E. Zafereo, Luiz P Kowalski, Gregory W. Randolph, Kerry D. Olsen, Verónica Fernández-Álvarez, Iain Nixon, Ashok R Shaha, Peter Angelos, Jatin P. Shah, Alfio Ferlito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Occlusion of the internal jugular vein (IJV) can be observed in thyroid cancer either on preoperative imaging with ultrasound or cross-sectional imaging, particularly contrast-enhanced CT-scan, and can be detected during follow-up when using these same imaging modalities. For thyroid cancer, four different causes of occlusion of the IJV can be identified: venous thrombosis associated with a hypercoagulable state, tumor thrombus in the vein, compression or invasion of the IJV by thyroid disease or lymph node metastases, and fibrotic collapse of the IJV following lateral neck dissection. Clinicians managing patients with thyroid cancer need to be aware of and able to diagnose each of these conditions. The overall patient impact and appropriate management of each will be discussed.

Key Words: internal jugular vein, thrombus, thrombosis, thyroid cancer
Original languageEnglish
JournalEJSO - European Journal of Surgical Oncology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2021

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