Objectives: In ideopathic obesity, there is evidence that enhanced cortisol regeneration within abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue may contribute to adiposity and metabolic disease. Whether the cortisol regenerating enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta HSD1), or glucocorticoid receptor (GR alpha) levels are altered in other adipose depots remains uncertain. Our objective was to determine the association between 11 beta HSD1 and GR alpha mRNA levels in four distinct adipose depots and measures of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
Research Methods and Procedures: Adipose tissue biopsies were collected from subcutaneous (abdominal, thigh, gluteal) and intra-abdominal (omental) adipose depots from 21 women. 11 beta HSD1 and GR alpha mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body composition. fat distribution, fat cell size. and blood lipid, Glucose. and insulin levels were measured.
Results: 11 beta HSD1 mRNA was highest in abdominal subcutaneous (p <0.001) and omental (p <0.001) depots and was positively correlated with BMI and visceral adiposity in all depots. Omental 11 beta HSD1 correlated with percent body fat (R = 0.462, p <0.05), fat cell size (R = 0.72, p <0.001), and plasma triglycerides (R = 0.46, p <0.05). Conversely, GR alpha mRNA was highest in omental fat (p <0.001). GRa mRNA was negatively correlated with BMI in the abdominal subcutaneous (R = -0.589, p <0.05) and omental depots (R = -0.627, p <0.05). Omental GR alpha mRNA was inversely associated with visceral adiposity (R = -0.507, p <0.05), fat cell size (R = -0.52, p <0.01), and triglycerides (R = -0.50, p <0.05).
Discussion: Obesity was associated with elevated 11 beta HSD1 mRNA in all adipose compartments. GRa mRNA is reduced in the omental depot with obesity. The novel correlation of 11 beta HSD1 with omental fat cell size, independent of obesity, suggests that intracellular cortisol regeneration is a strong predictor of hypertrophy in the omentum.
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - May 2007|
- abdominal obesity
- adipose tissue
- 11 beta-hydroxysteroid
- HUMAN ADIPOSE-TISSUE
- X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY
- REGIONAL DIFFERENCES
- PERIPHERAL CORTISOL
- VISCERAL OBESITY
- TYPE-1 ACTIVITY