TY - JOUR

T1 - On lensing by a cosmological constant

AU - Simpson, Fergus

AU - Peacock, John A.

AU - Heavens, Alan F.

PY - 2010/3/1

Y1 - 2010/3/1

N2 - Several recent papers have suggested that the cosmological constant Lambda directly influences the gravitational deflection of light. We place this problem in a cosmological context, deriving an expression for the linear potentials which control the cosmological bending of light, finding that it has no explicit dependence on the cosmological constant. To explore the physical origins of the apparent Lambda-dependent potential that appears in the static Kottler metric, we highlight the two classical effects which lead to the aberration of light. The first relates to the observer's motion relative to the source, and encapsulates the familiar concept of angular diameter distance. The second term, which has proved to be the source of debate, arises from cosmic acceleration, but is rarely considered since it vanishes for photons with radial motion. This apparent form of light bending gives the appearance of curved geodesics even within a flat and homogeneous universe. However, this cannot be construed as a real lensing effect, since its value depends on the observer's frame of reference. Our conclusion is thus that standard results for gravitational lensing in a universe containing Lambda do not require modification, with any influence of Lambda being restricted to negligible high-order terms.

AB - Several recent papers have suggested that the cosmological constant Lambda directly influences the gravitational deflection of light. We place this problem in a cosmological context, deriving an expression for the linear potentials which control the cosmological bending of light, finding that it has no explicit dependence on the cosmological constant. To explore the physical origins of the apparent Lambda-dependent potential that appears in the static Kottler metric, we highlight the two classical effects which lead to the aberration of light. The first relates to the observer's motion relative to the source, and encapsulates the familiar concept of angular diameter distance. The second term, which has proved to be the source of debate, arises from cosmic acceleration, but is rarely considered since it vanishes for photons with radial motion. This apparent form of light bending gives the appearance of curved geodesics even within a flat and homogeneous universe. However, this cannot be construed as a real lensing effect, since its value depends on the observer's frame of reference. Our conclusion is thus that standard results for gravitational lensing in a universe containing Lambda do not require modification, with any influence of Lambda being restricted to negligible high-order terms.

KW - gravitational lensing

KW - cosmology: theory

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77949334706&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16032.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16032.x

M3 - Article

VL - 402

SP - 2009

EP - 2016

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 3

ER -