Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether there was a clinically significant difference in the mean Oxford knee score (OKS) between 6 and 12 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The secondary aim was to identify variables associated with a clinically significant change in the OKS between 6 and 12 months. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using an established arthroplasty database of 1574 primary TKA procedures. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, OKS and EuroQoL 5-domain (EQ-5D) score were collected preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. A clinically significant change in the OKS was defined as 5 points or more. Results: There was a 1.1-point increase in the OKS between 6 and 12 months postoperatively, which was statistically significant (95% confidence (CI) 0.8-1.3, p < 0.0001). There were 381 (24.2%) patients who had a clinically significant improvement in their OKS from 6 to 12 months. After adjusting for confounding, patients with a lower BMI (p = 0.028), without diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001), a better preoperative OKS (p < 0.001) or a worse 6-month OKS (p < 0.001) were more likely to have a clinically significant improvement. A 6-month OKS < 36 points was a reliable predictor of a clinically significant improvement in the 6-month to 12-month OKS (area under the curve 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, there was no clinically significant change in the OKS from 6 to 12 months; however, a clinically significant improvement was observed in approximately a quarter of patients and was more likely in those scoring less than 36 points at 6 months. Level of evidence: retrospective diagnostic study, level III.