OntoEnricher: A Deep Learning Approach for Ontology Enrichment from Unstructured Text

Lalit Mohan Sanagavarapu, Vivek Iyer, Y. Raghu Reddy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

Abstract

Information Security in the cyber world is a major cause for concern, with a significant increase in the number of attack surfaces. Existing information on vulnerabilities, attacks, controls, and advisories available on the web provides an opportunity to represent knowledge and perform security analytics to mitigate some of the concerns. Representing security knowledge in the form of ontology facilitates anomaly detection, threat intelligence, reasoning and relevance attribution of attacks, and many more. This necessitates dynamic and automated enrichment of information security ontologies. However, existing ontology enrichment algorithms based on natural language processing and ML models have issues with contextual extraction of concepts in words, phrases, and sentences. This motivates the need for sequential Deep Learning architectures that traverse through dependency paths in text and extract embedded vulnerabilities, threats, controls, products, and other security-related concepts and instances from learned path representations. In the proposed approach, Bidirectional LSTMs trained on a large DBpedia dataset and Wikipedia corpus of 2.8 GB along with Universal Sentence Encoder is deployed to enrich ISO 27001-based information security ontology. The model is trained and tested on a high-performance computing (HPC) environment to handle Wiki text dimensionality. The approach yielded a test accuracy of over 80% when tested with knocked-out concepts from ontology and web page instances to validate the robustness.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCybersecurity and High-Performance Computing Environments
Subtitle of host publicationIntegrated Innovations, Practices, and Applications
EditorsKuan-Ching Li, Nitin Sukhija, Elizabeth Bautista, Jean-Luc Gaudiot
PublisherRoutledge Taylor & Francis Group
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9780367711504
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2022

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