Optimisation strategies for multi-layered armour plates

Isaac Reis, Filipe Teixeira-Dias, J. A. Oliveira*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A set of non-linear optimisation algorithms are combined with a finite element simulation code to analyse the energy absorption and elastic stress wave propagation problem in multilayer/multi- material armour systems under ballistic impacts. An Abaqus Python script is used to simulate the ballistic event and to generate the variables and post-processing outputs necessary for the integration with the optimisation algorithms. A number of modelling strategies are considered and three optimisation algorithms are used: Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA). The performance and efficiency of each algorithm are assessed through four benchmark tests with different levels of complexity. A multi-objective optimisation procedure is proposed that uses the most efficient algorithm based on every single-objective formulation, variables and constraints from the benchmark tests, resulting in a highly non-linear problem. The proposed optimisation methods successfully achieve the study purposes both in the simulation of generic ballistic impacts and in the quality of the optimised solutions, demonstrating the potential for this type of optimisation method on terminal ballistic applications, serving as a standpoint for further studies into higher energy impacts and material non-linearities.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Modelling and Simulation
Early online date19 Jan 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Jan 2023


  • Design optimisation
  • Armour systems
  • Terminal ballistics
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Particle swarm optimisation
  • Simulated annealing
  • Multi-objective optimisation


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