Organ transplants of the future: planning for innovations including xenotransplantation

E. Cozzi, Stefan Schneeberger, Maria Irene Bellini, Erik Berglund, Georg Bohmig, Kevin Fowler, Martin Hoogduijn, Ina Jochmans, Georg Marckmann, Lorna P Marson, James Neuberger, Rainer Oberbauer, Richard N. Pierson III, Bruno Reichart, Linda Scobie, Colin White, Martin Naesens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The future clinical application of animal-to-human transplantation (xenotransplantation) is of importance to society as a whole. Favourable preclinical data relevant to cell, tissue, and solid organ xenotransplants have been obtained from many animal models utilising genetic engineering and protocols of pathogen-free husbandry. Findings have reached a tipping point and xenotransplantation of solid organs is approaching its clinical application; this now requires close deliberation. Such discussions include considering when there is sufficient evidence from preclinical animal studies to start first-in-human xenotransplantation trials. The present article is based on evidence and opinions formulated by members of Workstream 01 of the Transplantation Learning Journey project, a programme of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. The article includes a brief overview of preclinical concepts and biology of solid organ xenotransplantation, discusses the selection of candidates for first-in-human studies, and considers requirements for study design and conduct. In addition, the paper emphasizes the need for a regulatory framework for xenotransplantation of solid organs and the essential requirement for input from public and patient stakeholders.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTransplant international
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2021


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