Osteoporosis and bone functional adaptation: Mechanobiological regulation of bone architecture in growing and adult bone, a review

J R Mosley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

During life, bone is continually optimized for its load-bearing role by a process of functionally adaptive (re)modelling. This process, which is more active in growing bone, is dominated by high-magnitude, high-rate strains, presented in an unusual distribution. Adaptation occurs at an organ level, involving changes in whole bone architecture and bone mass. The repetitive coordinated bone loading associated with habitual activity may have little role in the preservation of bone mass, and may even reduce the osteogenic potential of an otherwise highly osteogenic stimulus. Cells of the osteocyte/osteoblast network are best placed to appreciate mechanical strain. Among the strain-related responses they show, is a reduced rate of apoptosis. This may serve to regulate and target osteoclast activity. A more complete understanding of the stimuli and pathways involved in both the physiology and pathology of this structural homeostatic mechanism will allow the design of more appropriate exercise regimens and targeted pharmacological interventions to limit morbidity and mortality by reducing bone fragility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-199
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of rehabilitation research and development
Volume37
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000

Keywords

  • adaptation
  • apoptosis
  • cortical bone
  • estrogen
  • mechanical strain
  • mechanical stress
  • osteoblast
  • osteoclast
  • osteocyte
  • osteoporosis
  • HIGH-IMPACT EXERCISE
  • RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
  • ULNA IN-VIVO
  • MECHANICAL STRAIN
  • EXOGENOUS PROSTACYCLIN
  • POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
  • MINERAL DENSITY
  • CANCELLOUS BONE
  • LOADING INVIVO
  • OSTEOCYTES

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