Outcome after extended follow-up in a prospective study of operable breast cancer: key factors and a prognostic index

R A Hawkins, A L Tesdale, R J Prescott, T Forster, M A McIntyre, P Baker, W J L Jack, U Chetty, J M Dixon, M E Killen, M J Hulme, W R Miller

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In 1990, 215 patients with operable breast cancer were entered into a prospective study of the prognostic significance of five biochemical markers and 15 other factors (pathological/chronological/patient). After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, there were 77 recurrences and 77 deaths (59 breast cancer-related). By univariate analysis, patient outcome related significantly to 13 factors. By multivariate analysis, the most important of nine independent factors were: number of nodes involved, steroid receptors (for oestrogen or progestogen), age, clinical or pathological tumour size and grade. Receptors and grade exerted their influence only in the first 3 years. Progestogen receptors (immunohistochemical) and oestrogen receptors (biochemical) were of similar prognostic significance. The two receptors were correlated (r=+0.50, P=0.001) and displaced each other from the analytical model but some evidence for the additivity of their prognostic values was seen when their levels were discordant.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-14
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2002


  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Markers, Biological

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