Outcomes among confirmed cases and a matched comparison group in the Long-COVID in Scotland Study

Claire E. Hastie, David J Lowe, Andrew McAuley, Andrew J Winter, Nicholas L Mills, Corri Black, Janet T Scott, Catherine A. O'Donnell, David N. Blane, Susan Browne, Tracy R. Ibbotson, Jill P. Pell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

With increasing numbers infected by SARS-CoV-2, understanding long-COVID is essential to inform health and social care support. A Scottish population cohort of 33,281 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 62,957 never-infected individuals were followed-up via 6, 12 and 18-month questionnaires and linkage to hospitalization and death records. Of the 31,486 symptomatic infections,1,856 (6%) had not recovered and 13,350 (42%) only partially. No recovery was associated with hospitalized infection, age, female sex, deprivation, respiratory disease, depression and multimorbidity. Previous symptomatic infection was associated with poorer quality of life, impairment across all daily activities and 24 persistent symptoms including breathlessness (OR 3.43, 95% CI 3.29-3.58), palpitations (OR 2.51, OR 2.36-2.66), chest pain (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.96-2.23), and confusion (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.78-3.07). Asymptomatic infection was not associated with adverse outcomes. Vaccination was associated with reduced risk of seven symptoms. Here we describe the nature of long-COVID and the factors associated with it.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2022


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