Overtopping performance of different armour units for rubble mound breakwaters

Tom Bruce, J. W. van der Meer, L. Franco, J. Pearson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

This paper describes a major programme of small-scale physical model tests to establish better the influence of armour type and configuration on overtopping. Specifically, 179 tests determined the relative difference in overtopping behaviour for 13 types/configurations of armour. Roughness factors γf were determined for rock (two layers), cubes (single layer and two layers), Tetrapod, Antifer, Haro, Accropode, Core-Loc™ and Xbloc™. These roughness influence factors have been included in the CLASH database and are for use in the neural network prediction of overtopping. Individual wave-by-wave overtopping volumes were analysed and found to compare well with current prediction methods. Measured reflection coefficients for the different units are also presented and compared with recent formulae.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-179
Number of pages14
JournalCoastal Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Rubble mound breakwaters
  • Overtopping
  • Armour blocks
  • Wave reflection
  • Armour roughness
  • Overtopping volumes
  • Mean overtopping discharge


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