P>The ultimate outcome of T-cell recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes is determined by the molecular context in which antigen presentation is provided. The paradigm is that, after exposure to peptides presented by steady-state dendritic cells (DCs), inhibitory signals dominate, leading to the deletion and/or functional inactivation of antigen-reactive T cells. This has been utilized in a variety of models providing peptide antigen in soluble form in the absence of adjuvant. A co-inhibitory molecule of considerable current interest is PD-1. Here we show that there is the opportunity for the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction to function in inhibiting the T-cell response during tolerance induction. Using traceable CD4+ T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic cells, together with a blocking antibody to disrupt PD-1 signalling, we explored the roles of PD-1 in the induction of tolerance versus a productive immune response. Intact PD-1 signalling played a role in limiting the extent of CD4+ T-cell accumulation in response to an immunogenic stimulus. However, PD-1 signalling was not required for either the induction, or the maintenance, of peptide-induced tolerance; a conclusion underlined by successful tolerance induction in TCR transgenic cells genetically deficient for PD-1. These observations contrast with the reported requirement for PD-1 signals in CD8+ T-cell tolerance.