Persulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (persulfate-AOPs) offer great promise for environmental remediation, with heterogeneous catalysts providing the backbone of many wastewater purification technologies. Unlike conventional nanocatalyst heterogeneous systems, the immobilized-catalyst system can bypass the separation problem to reduce scour and prevent aggregation by anchoring nanoparticles onto porous or large-particle carriers. This review presents the state-of-the-art of knowledge concerning immobilization methodologies and reactors, reaction mechanisms, and activation performance. Immobilization techniques onto supports are summarized and discussed, including membrane-based reaction systems (immersion mode, and filtration mode), electrocatalytic auxiliary systems, and alternative supports (metallic glasses, aerogels, hydrogels, and specific materials). Key scientific problems and important prospects for the further development of immobilized catalysts are outlined.