Physical precipitating factors in functional movement disorders

Isabel Pareés, Maja Kojovic, Carolina Pires, Ignacio Rubio-Agusti, Tabish A Saifee, Anna Sadnicka, Panagiotis Kassavetis, Antonella Macerollo, Kailash P Bhatia, Alan Carson, Jon Stone, Mark J Edwards, Jon Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: A traditional explanation for functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms, including functional movement disorders (FMD), is that psychological stressors lead to unconsciously produced physical symptoms. However, psychological stressors can be identified in only a proportion of patients. Patients commonly reported a physical event at onset of functional symptoms. In this study, we aim to systematically describe physical events and surrounding circumstances which occur at the onset of FMD and discuss their potential role in generation of functional symptoms.

METHODS: We recruited 50 consecutive patients from a specialized functional movement disorders clinic. Semi-structured interviews provided a retrospective account of the circumstances in the 3 months prior to onset of the FMD. Questionnaires to assess mood disturbance and life events were also completed.

RESULTS: Eleven males and 39 females were recruited. Forty (80%) patients reported a physical event shortly preceding the onset of the FMD. The FMD occurred after an injury in 11 patients and after an infection in 9. Neurological disorders (n=8), pain (n=4), drug reactions (n=3), surgery (n=3) and vasovagal syncope (n=2) also preceded the onset of the functional motor symptom. 38% of patients fulfilled criteria for a panic attack in association with the physical event.

CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, physical events precede the onset of functional symptoms in most patients with FMD. Although historically neglected in favour of pure psychological explanation, they may play an important role in symptoms development by providing initial sensory data, which along with psychological factors such as panic, might drive subsequent FMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-7
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Neurological Sciences
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2014


  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Expectancy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement Disorders
  • Pain
  • Precipitating Factors
  • Questionnaires


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