Plant remains from the kreftenheye formation (Eemian) at Raalte, The Netherlands

Raymond W. J. M. van der Ham, Wim J. Kuijper, M. Joop H. Kortselius, Johan van der Burgh, Graham N. Stone, Jan G. Brewer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Kreftenheye Formation is a fluviatile deposit occurring in the central part of the Netherlands. The present study deals with the plant remains found in suction-dredged bulk samples from its largely Eemian Zutphen Member, a clayey sediment formerly known as the clay-peat bed or the Salvinia bed. It reports the discovery of a large number of galls induced by the asexual generation of the currently southeast European oak gall wasp Andricus hungaricus. The associated plant remains include seeds, fruits, conifer cones, wood, spines, leaf fragments, buds, bud scales, stem fragments, bryophytes, sporangia, oospores, palynomorphs, galls, jet and amber. The palynomorph samples indicate the Late Eemian pollen zone E5b of the Carpinus phase as the origin of the galls, but the other macrofossils may have a wider stratigraphic range, including possibly also material from (a part) of the zones E3-E5a. Several elements, such as Celtis, Chamaecyparis, Juglans, Magnolia and Pterocarya, date almost certainly from earlier interglacials. The list of plant remains is dominated by fresh water plants, riparian elements and ancient woodland taxa, which reflects the ecological range of the IJssel valley and adjacent ice-pushed ridges very well. Thermophilous elements include Brasenia schreberi, Buxus sempervirens, Cornus mas, Najas minor, Salvinia natans, Trapa natans and possibly also Andricus hungaricus. Quercus cerris, the probable host of the sexual generation of A. hungaricus was not found.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-144
Number of pages18
JournalVegetation history and archaeobotany
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008


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