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Long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) that maintain humoral immunity to previously encountered Ags occupy a compartment in the bone marrow (BM). The rules and mechanisms by which cells enter (and leave) this compartment are poorly understood. We looked at what happens to the LLPC compartment and to plasma cell lifespan in general, in situations in which Ag stimulation and/or inflammation persist. We find that chronic Ag supply causes the generation of short-lived plasma cells in the local lymphoid organ, at the expense of any LLPC production. Furthermore, we find that inflammation caused by infection (mediated via TNF-α) causes a dramatic mobilization of LLPCs from the BM, with a concomitant reduction in circulating Ab levels against previously immunized Ags. These data are discussed in the context of the capacity of the BM LLPC compartment and competition for entry to it.