Recently, we cloned the cDNA encoding the melanocyte lineage-specific antigen gp100 and demonstrated that gp100 is recognised by three different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) used to diagnose malignant melanoma. In addition, we showed that tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL 1200) from a melanoma patient reacted specifically with cells transfected with the gp100 cDNA. Molecular characterisation of the gp100 cDNA revealed that the gp100 antigen is highly homologous, but not identical, to another melanocyte-specific protein, pMel17. Here, we report that cells transfected with pMel17 cDNA also react with all three MAbs used to diagnose malignant melanoma, NKI-beteb, HMB-45 and HMB-50. Moreover, pMel17 transfectants are specifically lysed by TIL1200. These data demonstrate that antigenic processing of both gp100 and pMel17 give rise to peptides seen by anti-melanoma cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and are therefore potential targets for immunotherapy of malignant melanoma.