Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a NAD-consuming enzyme with an emerging key role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Although PARP-1 expression is characteristically restricted to the nucleus, a few studies report the mitochondrial localization of the enzyme and its ability to regulate organelle functioning. Here, we show that, despite exclusive nuclear localization of PARP-1, mitochondrial homeostasis is compromised in cell lines exposed to PARP-1 pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNA. PARP-1 suppression reduces integrity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as well as expression of mitochondria-encoded respiratory complex subunits COX-1, COX-2, and ND-2. Accordingly, PARP-1 localizes at promoters of nuclear genes encoding both the mtDNA repair proteins UNG1, MYH1, and APE1 and the mtDNA transcription factors TFB1M and TFB2M. It is noteworthy that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is required for nuclear gene expression of these mitochondrial proteins. Consistent with these findings, PARP-1 suppression impairs mitochondrial ATP production. Our results indicate that PARP-1 plays a central role in mitochondrial homeostasis by epigenetically regulating nuclear genes involved in mtDNA repair and transcription. These data might have important implications in pharmacology of PARP-1 inhibitors as well as clinical oncology and aging.
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2011|