Porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b based experimental vaccines provide protection against PCV2d/porcine parvovirus 2 co-challenge

Tanja Opriessnig, Anbu K. Karuppanan, Patrick G Halbur, Jay G Calvert, Gregory P Nitzel, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

With the discovery of Porcine circovirus type 2d (PCV2d) in the USA in 2012 and subsequent genotype shift from the previously predominant PCV2b to PCV2d in the face of widespread PCV2a vaccination, concerns over PCV2 vaccine efficacy were raised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two similarly produced PCV2 vaccines, one containing the PCV2a capsid and the other one containing the PCV2b capsid, in the conventional pig model against PCV2d/porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) co-challenge. A co-challenge was added since there is evidence that PPV2 may exacerbate PCV2 infection and since PCV2 only rarely causes disease in experimentally infected pigs, hence vaccine efficacy can be difficult to assess. In brief, sixty 3-week-old-pigs from a PCV2 seropositive farm without evidence of active virus replication (no PCV2 viremia, low antibody titers with no evidence of increase after two consecutive bleedings) were blocked by PCV2 antibody titer and then randomly divided into three groups with 20 pigs each, a non-vaccinated group (challenge control), a PCV2a vaccinated group (VAC2a) and a PCV2b vaccinated group (VAC2b). Vaccinations were done at 4 and again at 6 weeks of age. At 8 weeks of age, all pigs were challenged with a PCV2d strain via intranasal and intramuscular routes of inoculation followed by intramuscular administration of PPV2 one day later. PCV2 vaccination, regardless of PCV2 genotype, resulted in significantly higher humoral and cellular immunity compared to non-vaccinated challenge control pigs as evidenced by increased numbers of interferon (IFN) γ secreting cells after PCV2d stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected prior to challenge. Furthermore, PCV2a and PCV2b vaccinations both reduced PCV2d viremia and PCV2-associated pathological lesions. Under the study conditions, the PCV2a and PCV2b vaccine preparations each induced immune responses and clinical protection against a heterologous PCV2d/PPV2 co-challenge
Original languageEnglish
JournalVaccine
Early online date20 Jan 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Jan 2020

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