Predicting walking and cycling behaviour change using an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour

Emma L Bird, Jenna Panter, Graham Baker, Tim Jones, David Ogilive

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The psychological predictors of behaviour change may differ from the 28 predictors of engaging in behaviour, and there is limited evidence on the associations 29 between psychological constructs and changes in physical activity behaviours such as30 walking and cycling. This study of observational cohort data examined whether an extended 31 version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (eTPB) predicted change in walking and cycling 32 for transport and recreation using a population-based sample of adults from three UK33 municipalities.34 Methods: We used baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up data from the iConnect study. Nine 35 psychological constructs from the eTPB as well as weekly time spent (i) walking and (ii)36 cycling, each (i) for transport and (ii) for recreation, were self-reported at all time points.37 Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline eTPB38 constructs and (i) increases and (ii) decreases in the four behavioural outcomes, adjusted for 39 socio-demographic characteristics.40 Results: 1796 and 1465 participants provided 1- and 2-year follow-up data. All eTPB41 constructs except subjective norms were associated with changes in at least one of the four 42 outcomes, but these amounted to relatively few significant associations among the large 43 number tested. In general, eTPB constructs were more often associated with increases than 44 with decreases in time spent walking and cycling.45 Conclusions: This is one of the first known studies to examine psychological predictors of 46 change in walking and cycling for transport and recreation using an extended TPB. Future 47 interventions to promote walking and cycling through individually delivered approaches 48 might consider fostering the development of positive attitudes, perceived behavioural control,49 intentions, and habits for these behaviours.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-27
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Transport and Health
Early online date21 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2018


  • walking
  • bicycling
  • behaviour change
  • theory of planned behaviour


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