Background: This study provides, for the first time, national population-based estimates describing violence during childhood and adolescence in Peru and the impact on educational outcomes.
Methods: A population-based school survey was conducted among children aged 9-11 (n=1,587) and adolescents aged 12-17 (n=1,489). The relationship between violence and educational outcomes were analysed using bivariate logistic regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors.
Results: The results show that psychological (75.6%) and physical violence (72.5%) at home were the most prevalent forms of violence experienced by adolescent girls. Adolescent boys reported experiencing similar levels of psychological violence from their peers (69.4%) and at home (68.1%). For the younger cohort, peer-to-peer psychological violence was reported more frequently among girls (70.6%) and boys (74%) than other forms of violence. Equal percentages of adolescent girls and boys reported experiencing sexual violence in their lifetime (42%). The relationship between violence experiences and educational outcomes varied by gender with strong associations between violence at home and failing a course or repeating a grade for girls and being expelled for boys. Sexual violence experienced by boys was associated with all negative educational outcomes.
Conclusions: The relationship between violence in childhood and poorer educational outcomes is multi-faceted, potentially bi-directional, and manifests differently between genders. This research highlights the need for targeted research, policy and programming responses for prevention of violence.
- educational outcomes
- violence against children