Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids produced from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes and specific terminal prostanoid synthase enzymes. Following biosynthesis, prostaglandins exert an autocrine/paracrine function by coupling to specific prostanoid G protein-coupled receptors to activate intracellular signaling and gene transcription. For many years prostaglandins have been recognised as key molecules in reproductive biology by regulating ovulation, endometrial physiology and proliferation of endometrial glands and menstruation. More recently a role for COX enzymes and prostaglandins has been ascertained in reproductive tract pathology, including dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, menorrhagia and cancer. Emerging evidence supports a role for COX enzymes, prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptor signaling pathways in a multitude of phenotypic changes in reproductive tissues including the promotion of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we provide an overview of some of the findings from these studies with specific emphasis on the role of cyclooxygenase enzymes, prostaglandins and their receptors in benign and neoplastic pathologies of the human endometrium.