PROTON LOCATION AND HYDROGEN BONDING IN THE HYDROUS LEAD COPPER SULFATES LINARITE, PbCu(SO4)(OH)(2), AND CALEDONITE, Pb5Cu2(SO4)(3)CO3(OH)(6)

Paul F. Schofield*, Chick C. Wilson, Kevin S. Knight, Caroline A. Kirk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Neutron, time-of-flight, Laue diffraction has been carried out on natural single crystals of linarite, PbCu(SO4)(OH)(2), and caledonite, Pb5Cu2(SO4)(3)CO3(OH)(6), at 293 K. The structural refinements converged to Rw(F) = 0.085 on the basis of 869 observed reflections for linarite and Rw(F) = 0.066 from 1605 observed reflections for caledonite. The locations of all the hydrogen atoms within these structures were extracted from the refinements, enabling calculation of the hydrogen bonding. Linarite is monoclinic, space group P2(1)/m, with a 9.682(2), b 5.646(1), c 4.683(6) angstrom, and beta 102.66(1)degrees. It comprises chains of edge-sharing Jahn-Teller-elongated CuO6 square bipyramids running parallel to the [010] direction, bound together by hydrogen bonds. Between these layers are double PbO8 and SO4 layers. The two independent hydrogen atoms have been located and are bound as hydroxyl groups to the oxygen atoms at the corners of the CuO4 square plane. The H(4) atom has conventional hydrogen bonding. The donor-acceptor distance is 2.924(5) angstrom, and the hydrogen bond is nearly linear, with an angle of 176.1(6). The O(4)-H(4) hydroxyl bond distance is 0.952(7) angstrom, and the H(4)(center dot center dot center dot)O(2) hydrogen bond has a length of 1.973(9) angstrom. The H(5) hydrogen atom, however, forms a stronger hydrogen bond, with a donor-acceptor distance of 2.706(5) angstrom and an angle of 171.8(6). The O(5)-H(5) hydroxyl bond is lengthened to 1.025(8) angstrom, and the H(5)(center dot center dot center dot)O(4) hydrogen bond is a short 1.687(8) angstrom. Caledonite is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2(1) with a 20.085(3) angstrom, b 7.141(1) and c 6.563(1) angstrom; like linarite, it comprises chains of edge-sharing Jahn-Teller-elongated CuO6 square bipyramids, although these chains run parallel to the [001] direction. There are three independent Pb sites, in which Pb is coordinated to nine oxygen ligands, with a range of Pb-O distances of 2.352(4) to 3.571(6) angstrom. Caledonite has three independent hydrogen atoms that similar to those in the linarite structure: they are bound as hydroxyl groups to the oxygen atoms at the corners of the square plane of the axially elongate CuO6 square bipyramids. The hydrogen bonds in caledonite are all significantly bent, with angles between 160 and 170; otherwise, the H(1) and H(2) atoms have fairly conventional hydrogen bonding. The donor-acceptor distance for O(1)(center dot center dot center dot)O(4) and O(2)(center dot center dot center dot)O(4) are 2.887(7) and 2.776(6) angstrom, respectively; although the O(1)-H(1) hydroxyl bond at 0.95(1) angstrom is shorter than the O(2)-H(2) hydroxyl bond at 0.98(1) angstrom, the H(1)(center dot center dot center dot)O(4) hydrogen bond, 1.97(1) angstrom in length, is slightly longer than the H(2)(center dot center dot center dot)O(4) hydrogen bond at 1.84(1) angstrom. The O(3)-H(3) hydroxyl bond is 0.946(8) angstrom in length, and the H(3)(center dot center dot center dot)O(8) hydrogen bond is slightly shorter than expected at 1.777(9) angstrom. With the O(3)(center dot center dot center dot)O(8) donor-acceptor distance of 2.711(5) angstrom and the 20 deviation from linearity, this hydrogen bond may be strained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-662
Number of pages14
JournalCanadian mineralogist
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009
EventSession on Minerals in Contaminated Environments - Characterization, Stability, Impact held at the Frontiers in Mineral Sciences Meeting - Cambridge
Duration: 1 Jun 2007 → …

Keywords

  • linarite
  • caledonite
  • neutron diffraction
  • hydrogen bonding
  • crystal structure
  • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE
  • VALENCE PARAMETERS
  • RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY
  • MINERALS

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