Provision of straw as a foraging substrate reduces the development of excessive chain and bar manipulation in food restricted sows

Hans A M Spoolder*, Jackie A. Burbidge, Sandra A. Edwards, P. Howard Simmins, Alistair B. Lawrence

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pregnant sows fed at commercial levels remain highly food motivated for most of the day. The inability to express this behaviour appropriately may, under certain conditions, result in the development of abnormal oral activities such as stereotypic chain and bar manipulation. Ninety-six gilts, all between 1 and 3 weeks post service, were entered into a 2 × 2 factorial design comparing food level (low, 1.8 kg/23 MJ day-1 (L); high, 3.2 kg/40 MJ day-1 (H)) and the provision of a foraging substrate (S, straw; N, no straw). The gilts were loose housed in groups of six with individual stalls. A 70 cm chain loop was attached to the front of each stall. The sows were fed at 09:00 h, during which time S sows received straw (approximately 1.5 kg per sow). Behaviour was recorded over the first two parities, by time sampling for the 2 and 6 h after the start of feeding and over 24 h using video recordings. Activity levels were highest just after feeding, with L sows being more active than H sows (L vs. H, 79% vs. 49% for the second hour after the start of feeding, F1,12 = 41.5, P < 0.001). Most of the postprandial activity consisted of manipulating substrates. In LN sows, particularly in Parity 2, this behaviour was mainly directed towards chains and bars, resulting in levels three to four times higher than in other groups (26%, 7%, 4% and 4% for the second hour after feeding for LN, LS, HN and HS respectively; Tukey's HSD, P < 0.05). LS sows directed their foraging behaviour mainly towards the straw. It is concluded that in food-restricted pregnant sows, abnormally high levels of chain and bar manipulation can be prevented by providing straw which apparently acts as a foraging substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-262
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Animal Behaviour Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Feeding
  • Foraging
  • Pregnant sow
  • Stereotypies
  • Straw

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