|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict|
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 20 Jan 2022|
Both the purposes of punishment and the forms it should take have always been controversial. Following a brief historical overview, this article considers these two aspects of the topic. The main arguments for and against the adoption of rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation, and retribution as the purpose—or one of the purposes—of punishment are considered, as well as restitution and more recent concerns with restorative justice. Afterward, the focus moves on to the coming into being and evolution of prison, as well as on contemporary problems and specific categories of prisoners. Similarly, other institutions of punishment are reviewed, such as the death penalty, fines, and other sanctions in the community. Finally, the article provides insight into the approach to punishment as it is emerging from European Union law.
- European Union