The presence of PCV2 DNA or spliced capsid mRNA (Cap mRNA) for viral replication was assessed following addition of PCV2 to resting or concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Real-time PCR or real-time RT-PCR assays were used to measure viral DNA or Cap mRNA, respectively. The study demonstrated that PCV2 replication increased in infected PBMCs over time. Replication within infected PBMCs was significantly (P <0.05) increased when PBMCs were stimulated with ConA, compared to unstimulated PBMCs. The data showed a strong correlation between the level of PCV2 Cap mRNA and the level of viral DNA in the ConA stimulated PBMCs. Replication of PCV2 was also assessed in T lymphocyte- and monocyte/macrophage-enriched or monocyte/macrophage-depleted PBMC populations which had been stimulated with ConA for 3 days. It was demonstrated that the enriched T lymphocytes and the monocyte/macrophage-depleted PBMCs had significantly higher Cap mRNA and viral DNA levels (P <0.05) compared to the monocyte/macrophage-enriched population, indicating that in addition to monocytes/macrophages, PCV2 replicates in lymphocytes, particularly T lymphocytes following stimulation. These results suggest that the presence of activated T lymphocytes may play an important role in PCV2 replication and potentially the development of clinical disease.