Quantification of pralidoxime (2-PAM) in urine by ion pair chromatography-diode array detection: application to in vivo samples from minipig

H. John, M. Eddleston, R. E. Clutton, F. Worek, H. Thiermann

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Pralidoxime (2-PAM) is a monopyridinium oxime used as an antidote for the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) compounds, for example, pesticides and nerve agents, reactivating OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. However, appropriate dosing and efficacy remains a matter of discussion requiring experimental data. Therefore, we developed and validated an ion pair chromatography-diode array detection (IPC-DAD) method suitable for quantitative analysis of 2-PAM in human and porcine urine. Before injection of 20 mu l, urine was acidified with trichloroacetic acid, mixed with internal standard (pyridine-4-aldoxime, 4-PAO), and diluted with IPC solvent yielding a total dilution of 1:49.5 and a 100% recovery. Isocratic separation was carried out at 25 degrees C on a LiChrospher 60 RP-select B column (125 x 4.0 mm I. D.) using phosphate buffer (7.5 mM Na2HPO4, 7.5 mM KH2PO4, pH 2.6) mixed with octanesulfonate (2.5 mM) as ion pair reagent and acetonitrile (6% v/v) as organic modifier (1 ml/min). 2-PAM was detected at 293 nm and 4-PAO at 275 nm. The method is rugged, selective, and characterized by good intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD, 1.3-6.0%) and accuracy (88-100%) with a limit of detection at 4.9 mu g/ml, a limit of quantification at 9.8 mu g/ml, and a broad calibration range from 4.9-2500 mu g/ml. The procedure was applied to urine samples obtained from dimethoate poisoned minipigs receiving 2-PAM therapy (intravenous bolus injection and infusion). Results indicate that 60-80% of infused 2-PAM is rapidly (within 1-2 h) excreted in the urine. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)169-178
Number of pages10
JournalDrug testing and analysis
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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