Radio frequency-chain selection for energy and spectral efficiency maximization in hybrid beamforming under hardware imperfections

Evangelos Vlachos, John Thompson, Aryan Kaushik, Christos Masouros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The next generation wireless communications requires reduced energy consumption, increased data rates and better signal coverage. The millimetre wave frequency spectrum above 30 GHz can help fulfil the performance requirements of the next generation mobile broadband systems. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology can provide performance gains to help mitigate the increased path loss experienced at mmWave frequencies compared to microwave bands. Emerging hybrid beamforming architectures can reduce the energy consumption and hardware complexity with the use of fewer Radio-Frequency (RF) chains. Energy efficiency is identified as a key fifth generation (5G) metric and will have a major impact on the hybrid beamforming system design. In terms of transceiver power consumption, deactivating parts of the beamformer structure to reduce power typically leads to significant loss of spectral efficiency. Our aim is to achieve the highest energy efficiency for the millimetre-wave communications system while mitigating the resulting loss in spectral efficiency. To achieve this, we propose an optimal selection framework which activates specific RF chains that amplify the digitally beamformed signals with the analogue beamforming network. Practical precoding is considered by including the effects of user interference noise, and hardware impairments in the system modelling.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20200451
Number of pages19
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2244
Early online date23 Dec 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Dec 2020

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • radio-frequency chain selection
  • energy efficiency maximization
  • millimetre-wave hybrid multiple-input multiple-output


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