Raman spectroscopy of gallium ion irradiated graphene

Anthea Agius Anastasi, Andrea Valsesia, Pascal Colpo, Matthew Borg, Glenn Cassar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The successful integration of graphene in future technologies, such as filtration and nanoelectronics, depends on the ability to introduce controlled nanostructured defects in graphene. In this work, Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate the induction of disorder in graphene via gallium ion beam bombardment. Two configurations of CVD-grown graphene samples are used: (i) graphene supported on a Si/SiO2 substrate, and (ii) graphene suspended on porous TEM grids. It is observed that the supported graphene experiences more damage in response to lower beam doses than suspended graphene. This phenomenon is attributed to the behaviour of the energetic ions impinging the sample. In suspended graphene, the ions pass through the graphene membrane once and disperse to the atmosphere, while in supported graphene, the ions embed themselves in the substrate causing swelling and backscattering events, hence increasing the induced disorder. In supported graphene, the ratio between the Gaussian D and G peaks attributed to amorphous carbon, and the Lorentzian D and G peaks attributed to graphene, (IDG/IDL) and (IGG/IGL), are suggested to be used to quantify the degree of amorphization. The results are relevant to the development of nanostructured graphene-based filtration or desalination membranes, as well as for graphene-based nanoelectronics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-173
JournalDiamond and related materials
Early online date11 Sep 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Sep 2018


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