A rapid time to peak serum antibody response following vaccination is particularly important for influenza: the time window between the availability of appropriate antigen and the start of the seasonal epidemic is very short. In this paper, influenza vaccine was delivered to both the epidermis and dermis of mouse skin using densely packed microprojection arrays for vaccination. We found that, after vaccination, around 75% and 90% of the delivered influenza vaccine migrated away from the ear skin within just 2 days and 1 week - respectively. And the time to peak serum antibody response was as early as 2 weeks. This result matches the kinetics achieved by intramuscular injection of liquid vaccine to muscle. Thus, we demonstrate that skin delivery of small vaccine volumes discretely by thousands of densely packed microprojections neither induces delay in kinetics nor interferes with the long-lasting antibody response; compared to conventional intramuscular injection.
- Needle-free vaccination
- Skin delivery