Rea1, the largest predicted protein in the yeast genome, is a member of the AAA(+) family of ATPases and is associated with pre-60 S ribosomes. Here we report that Rea1 is required for maturation and nuclear export of the pre-60 S subunit. Rea1 exhibits a predominantly nucleoplasmic localization and is present in a late pre-60 S particle together with members of the Rix1 complex. To study the role of Rea1 in ribosome biogenesis, we generated a repressible GAL::REA1 strain and temperature-sensitive rea1 alleles. In vivo depletion of Rea1 results in the significant reduction of mature 60 S subunits concomitant with defects in pre-rRNA processing and late pre-60 S ribosome stability following ITS2 cleavage and prior to the generation of mature 5.8 S rRNA. Strains depleted of the components of the Rix1 complex (Rix1, Ipi1, and Ipi3) showed similar defects. Using an in vivo 60 S subunit export assay, a strong accumulation of the large subunit reporter Rpl25-GFP (green fluorescent protein) in the nucleus and at the nuclear periphery was seen in rea1 mutants at restrictive conditions.