Objective To compare early recurrence between good-quality white-light transurethral resection of bladder tumor (GQ-WLTURBT) and photodynamic diagnosis-assisted (PDD) transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in a real-life controlled setting. Methods A prospective controlled study was conducted commencing with a planned prospective cohort of patients with new tumors undergoing white-light TURBT in 2007-2008. Previously defined principles of GQ-WLTURBT for standardization and comparison of TURBT techniques, which are (1) cystoscopic mapping using a bladder diagram, (2) documented complete resection of the tumor, (3) resection performed or supervised by an experienced surgeon, (4) presence of detrusor muscle in the specimen, and (5) patient receiving mitomycin C within 24 hours of the resection, were applied. This was followed by a prospective cohort of new patients undergoing PDD-TURBT in 2009-2011. Only patients with new non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) deemed to have had complete first TURBT were included for analysis. Tumor features and findings at first check cystoscopy and early re-TURBT (in high-risk NMIBC) were evaluated. Early recurrence (for calculating recurrence rate at first follow-up cystoscopy) was defined as pathologically confirmed tumor on early re-TURBT or recurrence at the first check cystoscopy. Comparison was analyzed between GQ-WLTURBT and good-quality PDD-TURBT (GQ-PDDTURBT). Results A total of 808 patients were evaluated. The overall RRFFCs for GQ-WLTURBT and GQ-PDDTURBT were 30.9% and 13.6%, respectively (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.6-5.0; P <.001), with statistically significant lower recurrence rates in low- and intermediate-risk NMIBC after GQ-PDDTURBT. Conclusion Hexvix PDD-assisted TURBT is associated with a significantly lower risk of early recurrence compared with GQ-WLTURBT in a real-life clinical setting.