Recommended Parameter Values and Ranges of Most Frequently Used Static Load Models

Lidija Korunovic, J. V. Milanovic, Sasa Djokic, K. Yamashita, Segio Martinez Villanueva, Stefan Sterpu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents parameter values and ranges of
static load models used in power system analysis for the
representation of both individual electrical devices and aggregate
system loads. The paper discusses and correlates load models and
their parameters following statistical processing of the responses
of around 100 transmission system operators and utilities around
the world, who participated in a survey initiated by CIGRE
Working Group C4.605, with the corresponding information on
load models and their parameter values from the existing
literature. According to the survey, the most frequently used
static load models are voltage dependent, and voltage and
frequency dependent exponential load models. The identified
typical parameter values and ranges of these static load models,
both for low voltage devices and for aggregate loads at higher
voltage levels, are results of the analysis of a large number of
data. Based on these results, the paper provides recommendations
for their further use in power system studies and also introduces a
novel method for obtaining the mean values and ranges of
parameters of the aggregate system load models.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberTPWRS-00814-201
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Early online date9 May 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 May 2018


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