Redox properties of the isolated flavin mononucleotide- and flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domains of neuronal nitric oxide synthase

P E Garnaud, M Koetsier, T W B Ost, S Daff

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Abstract

Electron transfer through neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is regulated by the reversible binding of calmodulin (CaM) to the reductase domain of the enzyme, the conformation of which has been shown to be dependent on the presence of substrate, NADPH. Here we report the preparation of the isolated flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain of nNOS with bound CaM and the electrochemical analysis of this and the isolated flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain in the presence and absence of NADP+ and ADP (an inhibitor). The FMN-binding domain was found to be stable only in the presence of bound CaM/Ca2+, removal of which resulted in precipitation of the protein. The FMN formed a kinetically stabilized blue semiquinone with an oxidized/semiquinone reduction potential of -179 mV. This is 80 mV more negative than the potential of the FMN in the isolated reductase domain, that is, in the presence of the FAD-binding domain. The FMN semiquinone/hydroquinone redox couple was found to be similar in both constructs. The isolated FAD-binding domain, generated by controlled proteolysis of the reductase domain, was found to have similar FAD reduction potentials to the isolated reductase domain. Both formed a FAD-hydroquinone/NADP(+) charge-transfer complex with a long-wavelength absorption band centered at 780 nm. Formation of this complex resulted in thermodynamic destabilization of the FAD semiquinone relative to the hydroquinone and a 30 mV increase in the FAD semiquinone/ hydroquinone reduction potential. Binding of ADP, however, had little effect. The possible role of the nicotinamide/FADH(2) stacking interaction in controlling electron transfer and its likely dependence on protein conformation are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11035-11044
Number of pages10
JournalBiochemistry
Volume43
Issue number34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2004

Keywords

  • CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE
  • ELECTRON FLOW-THROUGH
  • KINETIC MECHANISM
  • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE
  • CONTROL ELEMENT
  • CALMODULIN
  • PTERIN
  • OXIDOREDUCTASE
  • SPECIFICITY
  • MODULATION

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