Reduction of greenhouse gases emission through the use of tiletamine and zolazepam

Sonia Lachowska, Agnieszka Antończyk, Joanna Tunikowska, Martyna Godniak, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Isoflurane is an anaesthetic gas widely used in both human and veterinary medicine. All currently used volatile anaesthetics are ozone-depleting halogenated compounds. The use of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) allows to induce the effect of general anaesthesia by administering drugs only intravenously without the use of anaesthetic gases. This allows you to create a protocol that is safe not only for the patient, but also for doctors and the environment. However, so far, no anaesthetic protocol based on induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazepam without the need to maintain anaesthesia with anaesthetic gas has been developed. Our study showed that the use of this combination of drugs for induction does not require the use of additional isoflurane to maintain anaesthesia. Thanks to Dixon's up-and-down method we proved that with the induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazepam at a dose of 5 mg/kg the use of isoflurane is not needed to maintain anaesthesia in minimally invasive surgical procedures. Until now, this dose has been recommended by the producer for more diagnostic than surgical procedures or for induction of general anaesthesia. The maintenance was required with anaesthetic gas or administration of another dose of the tiletamine-zolazepam. The results obtained in this study will allow for a significant reduction in the consumption of isoflurane, a gas co-responsible for the deepening of the greenhouse effect, having a negative impact on patients and surgeons. These results are certainly the first step to achieving a well-balanced and safe TIVA-based anaesthetic protocol using tiletamine-zolazepam, the obvious goal of which will be to maximize both the safety of the patient, people involved in surgical procedures, and the environment itself. Being aware of the problem of the greenhouse effect, we are committed to reducing the consumption of anaesthetic gases by replacing them with infusion agents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9508
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Early online date9 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2022


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